Importance of Vaccines
Immunizations are vital for improving public health and decreasing healthcare costs.
The details of vaccine science or all vaccine-preventable diseases are beyond the scope of this chapter.
Below are the vaccines that are approved and authorized in the United States to prevent COVID-19:
Different COVID-19 Vaccines
Vaccines are now widely available. In most cases, you do need an appointment. Do not wait for a specific brand. Learn how to find a COVID-19 vaccine so you can get it as soon as you can.
All currently authorized and recommended COVID-19 vaccines:
- are safe,
- are effective, and
- reduce your risk of severe illness.
CDC does not recommend one vaccine over another.
Vaccine Brand Name
Who Can Get this Vaccine [ 1 ]
How Many Shots You Will Need
When Are You Fully Vaccinated?
People 12 years and older
Given 3 weeks (21 days) apart [ 2 ]
2 weeks after your second shot
People 18 years and older
Given 4 weeks (28 days) apart [ 2 ]
2 weeks after your second shot
People 18 years and older
2 weeks after your shot
1 If you have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immediate allergic reaction to any ingredient in the vaccine you are scheduled to receive, you should not get that vaccine. If you have been instructed not to get one type of COVID-19 vaccine, you may still be able to get another type. Learn more information for people with allergies.
2 You should get your second shot as close to the recommended 3-week or 4-week interval as possible. However, your second shot may be given up to 6 weeks (42 days) after the first dose, if necessary.
- Understanding How COVID-19 Vaccines Work
Learn how the body fights infection and how COVID-19 vaccines protect people by producing immunity. Also see the different types of COVID-19 vaccines that currently are available or are undergoing large-scale (Phase 3) clinical trials in the United States.
- COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines
Information about mRNA vaccines generally and COVID-19 vaccines that use this new technology specifically.
- Viral Vector COVID-19 Vaccines
Information about viral vector vaccines generally and COVID-19 vaccines that use this new technology specifically.
Influenza, also called the flu, is a common but sometimes serious viral infection of your lungs and airways. It can cause congestion, fever, body aches, and other symptoms.
Bacteria first attach themselves to pharyngeal epithelial cells, then are phagocyte into host’s bloodstream.
CNS bacterial pathogens have extensive polyacrylamide capsule resistant to eutrophic phagocytes and complement optimization.
Incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid among UK travellers visiting friends and relatives in the Indian subcontinent is increasing, according to the Health Protection Agency.
Top 10 Reasons to Protect Children Through Vaccination.
Parents want to do everything possible to make sure their children are healthy and protected from preventable diseases. Vaccination is the best way to do that.
Vaccination protects children from serious illness and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases which can include amputation of an arm or leg, paralysis of limbs, hearing loss, convulsions, brain damage, and death.
Vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and whooping cough, are still a threat. They continue to infect U.S. children, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths every year.
Though vaccination has led to a dramatic decline in the number of U.S. cases of several infectious diseases, some of these diseases are quite common in other countries and are brought to the U.S. by international travelers. If children are not vaccinated, they could easily get one of these diseases from a traveler or while traveling themselves.
Outbreaks of preventable diseases occur when many parents decide not to vaccinate their children.
Vaccination is safe and effective. All vaccines undergo long and careful review by scientists, doctors, and the federal government to make sure they are safe.
Organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all strongly support protecting children with recommended vaccinations.
Vaccination protects others you care about, including family members, friends, and grandparents.
If children aren’t vaccinated, they can spread disease to other children who are too young to be vaccinated or to people with weakened immune systems, such as transplant recipients and people with cancer. This could result in long-term complications and even death for these vulnerable people.
We all have a public health commitment to our communities to protect each other and each other’s children by vaccinating our own family members.
Attention Adults: You Need Vaccines Too!
Vaccinations aren’t just for kids, so follow CDC’s immunization schedule for adults. Doing so can help keep you from getting sick and missing work or school.
As an adult, you are busy with life and have many responsibilities — but don’t forget to take care of yourself! Every year in the United States, thousands of adults become seriously ill and are hospitalized because of diseases that vaccines can help prevent. These diseases can be deadly for many adults. Make sure you are vaccinated for the best protection!
The need for vaccines does not go away with age. In fact, there are specific ages in your adult life when vaccinations are recommended. Also, protection from vaccines you received as a child can wear off over time, and there are more vaccines available now.
Getting vaccinated is one of the safest ways for you to protect your health. Vaccine side effects are usually mild (like soreness at the injection site) and go away on their own. Severe side effects are very rare.
It’s also important to protect yourself when traveling for work or pleasure. Depending on where you travel, vaccines can protect you from diseases that are rare in the United States, like yellow fever.
Talk to your healthcare professional about which vaccines are right for you!
The vaccines you need as an adult are determined by many factors including your age, lifestyle, health condition, and which vaccines you’ve received during your life. As an adult, vaccines are recommended for protection against:
Seasonal influenza (flu) – Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine every year as the best way to reduce the risk of flu and its potentially serious complications.
Pertussis, also known as whooping cough – The Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis) vaccine is recommended for women during each pregnancy and once for all adults who have not previously received it.
Tetanus and diphtheria – The Td vaccine is recommended every 10 years.
Shingles – The herpes zoster vaccine is recommended for adults 50 years and older.
Pneumococcal disease – Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults 65 years and older. One or both vaccines may be recommended for adults younger than 65 who have specific health conditions or who smoke cigarettes.